"THE TUNNELS OF THE ANDES AND THE GOLS OF THE INCAS"
It’s a pleasure to introduce the KORICANCHA PROJECT, an archaeological scientific project of great interest to the international community. This project refers to the investigations and excavations that we carried out with the BOHIC RUZ TEAM, in the two majors solar temples of the Inca Empire, such as: the KORICANCHA (actually the Convent of Santo Domingo) and SAQSAYWAMAN in Cusco (Peru).
The project is based on the remarkable information gathered by early chroniclers, colonial historians, researchers and archaeologists of the XIX and XX centuries indicating that the Two Solar Temples were communicated through a tunnel (CHINKANA in Quechua language) of 1.2 kilometers, which starts from the Koricancha crossing the entire city of Cusco, and linking the most important palaces of the Inca sovereigns as an umbilical cord, ending its route in the subway labyrinths of the citadel of Saqsaywaman mentioned by Garcilaso de la Vega in his Comentarios Reales. At these labyrinths, the Incas hid part of the sacred pieces and other precious metals which were preserved in the Koricancha and constituted the fundamental aspect of the religion of the Tawantinsuyo.
Until now, these structures had not been documented or scientifically investigated and no rigorous excavations had been carried out in the KORICANCHA because of the Order of Santo Domingo (owner of the Koricancha Complex) had not allowed extensive excavations within its property, which occupies an archaeological area of the utmost importance in terms of monuments of Inca and pre-Inca origin.
The AGREEMENT that we signed with the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CULTURE OF PERU and with the ORDER OF THE DOMINICANS OF CUSCO, allowed us to carry out exhaustive investigations in the subsoil of KORICANCHA through the application of high technology, remote sensing systems Georadar (Ground Penetrating Radar) and systematic excavations under the current floor of the church that corresponded to the main enclosure of the ancient TEMPLE OF THE SUN OF THE INCAS.
We also signed an agreement with the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CULTURE OF CUSCO that facilitated the excavations in the area of SAQSAYWAMAN, in the CHINKANA GRANDE area, where supposedly the entrances to the complex system of Inca tunnels existed.
The results obtained from all these works allowed us to locate the existence of these subway structures and to unravel the MYSTERY OF THE TUNNELS.Anselm Pi Rambla
The mysterious GEOGLYPH located in the bay of Paracas in Peru is deciphered
Researcher ANSELM PI RAMBLA, an expert in ancient symbology, has been able to decipher the mysterious sign of the Peruvian coast, located in the bay of Paracas, about 300 km south of Lima, called by the natives of place the Candelabro of Paracas. After several years of a patient investigation, Pi Rambla, has unraveled the meaning of the famous geoglyph, also called the Trident of Paracas, getting what so many specialists have tried for decades. Many hypotheses have been proposed for many years about its interpretation, but for the moment none have been shown or accepted by official archeology. Since the first works carried out in Paracas by the great Peruvian archaeologist Julio C. Tello to date, neither rigorous investigations nor state-of-the-art techniques have been carried out to decipher and interpret their true meaning, motive and purpose.
My first contact and analysis of the Candelabro was in 1982 with the creator and promoter of the Paracas Reserve, Dr. Felipe Benavides, President of the World Wildlife Fund of Peru (WWF - Prodena). In that then the investigations carried out were not enough to decipher this important Geoglyph. They had to pass several years in which applying techniques of different disciplines we finally gave with their meaning, interpretation, motive and purpose. I wish to state that there is no doubt that the Paracas Candelabro has been designed, constructed and positioned by precise astronomical and geodesic techniques with a specific and determined purpose, which we will make known to the entire international community supported by our team, composed of specialists in different disciplines (history, archeology, anthropology, archeoastronomy and symbology).
The Candelabro or Tridente as we like to call it offers us three different functions and complementary to each other:
With reference to its design we must point out that it is unique throughout the American continent, there is no other equal, its layout obeys an old concrete symbology and a precise interpretation that refers to one of the greatest mysteries of our Planet Earth hidden in these Peruvian lands.
Archaeological and geophysical works on the Nazca lines
When flying over Nazca, it is enough to observe the immensity of this desert to where these lines are observable to realize that their whole is chaotic; Some end up abruptly, others intersect in any direction, some are lost in front of the coast towards the Pacific Ocean, there are others that are directed towards the Andean mountain range, being impossible to determine that its design and utility are only astronomical. All of this without forgetting that many of the lines appear on other older, barely visible, that point to different directions. We have done many reconnaissance flights in an area from Paracas to beyond Nazca and we have observed many lines that still today have not been discovered or analyzed by official science. The scarce rains of this area, one of the driest on the planet, and the lack of obstacles to the wind, which releases its sand about a hundred kilometers to the north, make the drawings are maintained almost indefinitely. Observing this true chaos one realizes that the different interpretations that have been made on Nazca are far from the reality of what they are and for which they were constructed. We are convinced and this is where our work points out that it is necessary and essential to combine many more research disciplines such as studies of history, ancient symbology, geological studies, archaeastronomic and the latest advances in underground remote sensing systems among others.
One of the investigations that we think is most important to consider is why the Nazca Lines are located opposite the critical point of suction in the Atacama Trench due to the push of the Nazca Plate in the Pacific against the South American Plate causing the Andes to rise increasingly.
When the earth's crust collapses at one of its inflection points, ancient archaeological remains of the area have been thrown into the ocean abyss. As a notable example of this we can cite the photographs of the "Milne-Edwards" pit taken by Dr. Menzies, of Duke University, from the oceanographic vessel Anton Bruun in 1965, off the coast of Peru.
The sonar recordings made in this area indicated very strange configurations in the ocean floor, which was apparently a muddy surface. The photographs taken at a depth of 2000 meters showed what looked like huge pillars and walls, some covered with calligraphic signs.
When they tried to take other photographs they noticed that although the position of the special chamber was modified by the submarine currents, other plates of rocks with artificial forms were obtained that lay on the sides, and some of them in piles, as if they had rolled one on top other. This happened at a time when many archaeological remains sank to a depth of more than 1500 meters at the bottom of the sea. Although this incident shows one of the deepest depths of the ocean in which ruins have been found, it is probable that future underwater explorations, carried out at the same or similar depths, will provide definite evidence, in the relatively near future, of the existence of civilizations Whose remains lie now at the depth of the world's oceans.
Archaeoastronomy studies and filming of the ruins
When the conquest of Peru by Pizarro, the Incas claimed that Tiahuanaco had never known anything but ruins. Their elders and sages claimed it was the city of the first men of the Earth, which was created by the god Wiracocha. Arthur Posnansky, begginings of the XX century, was the first to propose a dating of Tiahuanaco based on the alignments of the monoliths at certain star positions. He found that the angle at which the horizon of Tiwanaku was in the time of its construction (obliquity of the ecliptic, not to be confused by with the phenomenon of precession) was 23º 8'48'' and corresponded to an undetermined date around 15,000 BC During the years 1927-1930, scientists from other disciplines checked carefully Posnansky investigations. These scientists, members of a powerful group who also studied many other archaeological sites in the Andes, were Dr. Hans Ludendorff, then director of the Astronomical Observatory of Potsdam, Dr. Friedrich Becker of the Specula Vaticanita, and two other astronomers: the Professor Arnold Kohlschütter, University of Bonn and Dr. Rolf Muller of the Astrophysical Potsdam Institute. After three years of meticulous work, the scientists concluded that Posnansky was basically right, and the proposed date of 15,000 BC It was within the limits of the possible. Posnansky developed a theory that an advanced civilization populated America much earlier than most experts assumed that civilization and died after a devastating cataclysm. And inevitably emerged a name to explain the cultural origin of Tiahuanaco: Atlantis.
That was his mistake. The conclusions of Posnansky were cornered because of the scientific academy on that damned continent.
According to some Andean traditions tell us that the original name of Tiwanaku was "CHUCHARA" and that there were two cities one below the other, the main underground. In the living area workers and workshops they were. The underground city would give us the key to a remarkable civilization, dating back to the early days. It was acceded to it by several entrances that ended at the site of Tiwanaku. Without ruling out or belittle these ancient traditions and adding the data collected during many years of research by our team Bohic Ruz, we think that at a depth between 10 and 25 meters, there is another Tiahuanaco. We agree with the investigations and conclusions of Oswaldo Rivera (INAR former director of the Institute of Archaeology of Bolivia). We think it might be a huge sunken city, which must accommodate the unique culture of the place. We currently don’t have sufficient evidence because it has been excavated only 5% of its surface. To date there are five periods for Tiahuanaco detected, and there is an obvious relationship to each other. But still we do not know if will be a pre-tiahuanaco culture.
The search of archaeological treasures is what has motivated most of the expeditions to Lake Titicaca. In this case, the figure of William Mardoff American diver, hired in 1956 by a Bolivian millionaire to rescue a supposed hidden treasure to be found among silt and abundant aquatic vegetation. After a long search, did not find any treasure but Mardoff described details of "a city submerged of Titans that is partially covered by mud and algae." In 1968, Argentinean Ramón Avellaneda led the expedition called Fer de Lance. The large number of photographs and films were achieved and the strongest evidence of the existence of submerged cities in the sacred lake. Divers who made up this underwater mission found huge monolithic stones assembled together, forming walls, similar to those of Sacsayhuaman. They also found perfectly paved roads with huge stone slabs that were lost in the mud and algae. Analyzed the photos, they reached the conclusion that it was megalithic ruins. In 1979, while the film The Sacred Lake, is filmed under the direction of researcher Hugo Boero Rojo, the team found "similar to the fortress of Sacsayhuaman Cyclopean embankments". La Paz newspapers published on December 4, 1980 statements divers: "monumental stone blocks that appear to be half-destroyed walls of temples, paths that are lost in the deep caverns, roads that go deep into the depths were found from the lake".
Lake Titicaca, located almost 4000 meters altitude in the Andes between Bolivia and Peru, remains of civilizations of more than 2000 years are hidden below the lake that a revolutionary plan of underwater archeology is trying to reveal.
Archaeoastronomical studies at the Intiwatana of Machu Picchu with Professor Benjamin Sánchez Fernández, Doctor mining engineer and professor at the University of Oviedo, Spain
In this Works are used oriented digital models to make the astronomical interpetation of the intiwatana of machu pichu, which was carved into a granite rock with the course to know the different seasons of the solar year. For the digital model of the Intiwatana and its environment it was necessary to carry out a field work that was basically on positions with absolute coordinates using a GPS navigator a lifting speedometer accuracy with electronic total station and reflection and Miniprisms angular sun observations, using the total station to determine the direction of true north. The field work was done on 20 and 21 of June in 2000, obtaining the refered values of the WGS-84 system. Latitude: 13 ° 9 '47.3 "S, Longitude: 72 ° 32' 44.5" W; Ellipsoid height: 2500 m. Because of the mountains surrounding the citadel of Machu Picchu have a quite pronounced relief, in order to know its profile in areas where the sun rises and sets, horizontal and zenith angles of the highlights of the horizon were taken. These measurements are also oriented to true north with the data from the solar observation. To refer to true north coordinates of the measured points in an arbitrarily oriented system, it was necessary to solve the astronomical triangle formed by the peak position of the station point, the position of the center of the sun and the Earth's north pole. The data needed for this calculation were the geographical coordinates, latitude and longitude, obtained by GPS station point; the exact time it was noted in the sun, expressed in T.U. (Standard time + 5 hours); and the values of the declining, semidiameter apparent when the sun over Greenwich antimeridiano that were obtained from the yearbooks for instant astronomical observation. Once solved the astronomical triangle position 67.991 degrees azimuth to the origin of horizontal angles allowing the guide to true north taquimétrico survey conducted simply by making a turn (in topographical sense) of -67.991 degrees was obtained using as center turning the measurement station. For astronomical interpretation of Intiwatana among the many possibilities that exist, in this work it was chosen to study the shadows on the monolith at the moment of sunrise over mountains in singular dates, such as solstices June and December, the equinoxes and the passage of the sun through the zenith and antizenith the place of observation. he results obtained were: June solstice (June 21) Azimuth: 68.240 degrees; Zenith angle: 84.600 degrees December solstice (December 21) Azimuth: 124.408 degrees; Zenith angle: 89.088 degrees Equinoxes (March 20 and September 22) Azimuth: 96.779 degrees; Zenith angle: 86.444 degrees Cenit (February 14 and October 28) Azimuth: 112.149 degrees; Zenith angle: 86.763 degrees Antizenith (April 24 and August 17) Azimuth: 81.435 degrees; Zenith angle: 86.950 degrees From a several of photographs taken of the Intiwatana, from different perspectives and using a computer program, a photogrammetric digital model of the monolith mentioned was determined. The program used convergent part of frames of object to be reconstructed digitally, and requires that the frames completely sprinkle on the object, so that in each pair of adjacent frames there are at least three common and easily identifiable points. The program calculates the model according to the following process: * Determine the coordinates (x, y, z) of the points of making photographs. * Calculate the angles of orientation of the frame in space. * Find the coordinates (x, y, z) of each point on the object identified. Once we know the coordinates of each point on the object labeled it is possible to build a model using wired lines connecting the dots. This can be defined wireframe surfaces and textures give them obtained by the photographs.
If the representation is observed in plant obtained topographic digital model, you can see that the upper parallelepiped of Intiwatana is oriented such that the bisectors of the angles formed by the faces coincide quite precisely with the geographic directions north, south, east and west. Western edges of the upper platform Intiwatana, have an alignment parallel to the base of the upper parallelepiped, so that their bisector also indicates the west direction. The western part of the platform seems to be quite adequate for the observations of the shadows cast by the sun at dawn. At dawn on June solstice, step by antizenith, equinox, passing through the zenith and December solstice shows that the sun's shadow is projected on the upper platform of the Intiwatana, particularly on the edges to the west, proving as shadow moves over them, being the northwest ridge best suited to observe the zenith passage and December solstice. For other dates can be used either edges. In terms of precision that could determine these dates interest depends on the daily variation in the sun's declination in before and after the same day, is very small at the solstices, but the rest is variation more important, and given the distance from which the shade, which is about 0.6 meters, the daily movement thereof is approximately 5 mm is projected magnitude that is perfectly observable and that could determine without any uncertainty any of these dates, including the zenith passage, that would serve to know precisely the cycle of the solar year (tropical year) and as a consequence have a tool for measuring time.
Professor Benjamin Sánchez Fernández, University of Oviedo, Spain
Previously Unknown Mayan Codex Discovered and Authenticated by Period Experts
A few days before the famous end of the Mayan cycle of 5125 years ending on 12/21/12, a new Maya Codex unknown to date has been presented to the international community. A research team has discovered an invaluable piece missing from the Mayan culture. The lost codex has been safeguarded by a family for almost three centuries. According to experts, this Codex is one of the best preserved of the 4 existing in the world with an antiquity of (+/-) 1540 AD. It is protected by carved wooden front and rear covers. In a first analysis they have intervened: Roderick McNeil, Anselm Pi Rambla, McCrone Associates and Janet G. Smith, ISA.
Maritime exploration works on the Peruvian Pacific Ocean coast on the investigation of Asian transpacific voyages in antiquity
Anselm Pi Rambla and his Bohic Ruz Team will carry out underwater surveys in the Pisco-Paracas area in order to locate archaeological remains of the millenary maritime activity in this important area of the Pacific Ocean.
We have important evidences that this western coast of South America was a maritime zone of important transpacific landings more than 3000 years old.
These investigations are supported by the latest advances in cartography on the ancient works of Ptolemy, Marino de Tiro, Henricus Martellus together with the works of professor Paul Gallez and Dr. Dick Ibarro Grasso.
Research and filming works
We make films and archaeological and archaeoastronomical research in the ruins of Ollantaytambo, one of the most monumental architectural complexes of the Andes, 80 km. From Cusco in the Urubamba Valley. Commonly called "Fortress" because of its huge walls, it was actually a city-bed and a solar temple, strategically located in the famous "Sacred Valley".
The architectural type used, and the quality of each stone, worked individually make Ollantaytambo one of the works of spectacular and remarkable engineering that made the ancient Peruvians, especially in the area of the Temple of the Sun with its gigantic monoliths.
According to Pi Rambla, the sector of the Temple of the sun of Ollantaytambo, which is only a wall was not built by the Incas as announces the official archeology (DC 1440) but by an ancient culture that is still unknown. According to their research, some of the granite stones that make up this wall weighing over forty tons were transported from the mountain which is across the river of a distance of 4 kilometers with a height of over 800 meters.
Many questions arise that even conventional science could not explain: How were they transported these enormous blocks of stone from a quarry located 4 kilometers away, perched on mountain slope to the very top where the sun temple is located? How they were planted and put in place?.
Spectacular rock cut made with a totally unknown and very sophisticated technique as we can see in the photo. How they were cut and polished with such a level of perfection?. This is not achieved with tools of stone or bronze, as these materials do not make a dent in andesite and pink granite that Ollantaytambo was built. How did you managed to gather each other with such improbable perfection, you can not insert a sheet of paper in the joints? and they did it without any mortar or cement or some kind of sealant.
Like the rest of the sites occupied by the Incas in the Urubamba River, near Machu Picchu, in the Intiwatana area there are sidewalks, grounds and ceremonial sites with stone sculptures
The Urubamba river in its route to Machu Picchu bends that aligns with the area that is obtained the water for central facilities. In the 121 km of the railroad agricultural platforms and ceremonial complex are located. In the lower part of the slope occupied by the archaeological site, the farmers know the name of the hill as "El Calvario” has traced the development of the railway which forms a zig-zag to save excessive slope. Down of the railway are the extensive facilities of the Electricity Generation Company in Machu Picchu. The area described is situated on the left bank of the Urubamba River, which later receives waters of the stream Aobamba. The place was visited by travelers and members of the scientific expedition that led Hiram Bingham, who made the first scientific recognition site. The agricultural terraces were always used by the farmers settled in the area, who probably looted existing graves at the site, long before the arrival of that expedition. It is a very poorly documented testimony prehispanico which there are almost no references.
The site is enclosed by steep slopes that descend to the river. To the west side are the Llactapata and Puncuyoc hills to the north Cerro San Cristobal, on the right bank of the Urubamba River and the east side hill called Yucaypata. In that frame of topography it stands on the east side, in the upper part of the slope, a sort of rocky promontory known as Yanacaca. That lytic formation seen in the distance as the silhouette of the head of a flame and is located just in a place that is observed from the Intiwatana of Machu Picchu. It is likely that natural element triggered the creation of the ceremonial sector we describe, which has been chosen so as to have direct toward the back of Machupicchu visual. The site can be seen in the distance the pyramid promontory where the Intiwatana of Machu Picchu is located, showing a room with two windows and stepped platforms.
The Incas gave sculptural outcrops of rocks that were in the places they recognized a magical or religious forms. In this case the hard granite rock sculpted masterfully to express the complex symbolism of the Tawantinsuyo worldview. Attached to the slope of the hill it is located the source of ceremonial face to the North East, as well as the ceremonial seats and pyramid sculpture located a few meters away, forming a set of ritual use facing the rising sun. In the same orientation coincides with the location of pyramidal mound of Machu Picchu, visible in the distance. The source has been shaped like a block of granite rock flat and vertical, four meters long and one meter sixty to eighty centimeters high and just wide. It has been carved on a outcrop of rock by matching its middle channel, also carved in the stone, which allows access of water then leaves four suppliers cut into the face of the stone, as openings runs equidistant two feet each other. This lytic volume occupies the central part of sacred space and was the main shrine. Masterfully sculpture provides, thanks to the play of light and shadow that accentuate their geometric design, the vision of a phased sign of deep significance in Inca iconography.
The stepped sign is linked to lightning, Illapa, which in turn is associated with water divinity. However, the face of the sculpture that receives sunlight in the morning is a truncated triangle geometric shape that could be related to the worship of Punchao, the divinity of the day. To the East side of the sculpture, it exists on a carved rock with curved staircases platform, which are descending into a ravine cut vertically. This concave size received the water that ran the ceremonial source and derived to fall like a veil on the vertical section of the creek. The use and function of this sculpture, and his real name in Inca times is unknown to us yet, because they have done work ethno-historical and archaeological research. Thanks to the quality of the stone material on which it has carved sculpture, his condition is good, although regrettable neglect of the site is devoid of a direct and convenient access.